Extensive glossary of food manufacturing, science and technology.

 Quality: An attribute of a commodity that influences its acceptability to a group of buyers, and, therefore, the price they are willing to pay for it; does not mean whether something is good, better, or best, bur rather is synonymous with "desired characteristic.". Food quality is the result of three major components - appearance (size, shape, colour); flavour (taste on the tongue, odour in the nose); texture (how product feels in the hand, in the mouth as it is chewed, or how it pours).  Quality assurance: All the planned and systematic activities implemented within the quality system which controls each stage of food production from raw material harvest to final consumption, and demonstrated as needed, to provide adequate confidence that an entity will fulfill requirements for quality.  Quality control: Series of checks and control measures that ensure that a uniform quality food is produced.  Quality standard: Commonly agreed-upon yardsticks for measuring differences in product quality. QS (Quantum Satis): Necessary amount of a food additive to gain the intended effect.  Radiation Dose: Quantity of radiation energy absorbed by the food as it passes through the radiation field during processing.  Radiation: Rays of energy.  Radio frequency: Electromagnetic waves at frequencies of 13.56, 27.12 and 40.68 MHz.  Radiolytic Products (RP's): Chemicals produced in food when the food is irradiated that are the same as chemicals produced during cooking.  Radura Symbol: Circular symbol that must appear on all irradiated food unless the food is used as an ingredient in a processed food or is served in a restaurant. Raising agents: Used to increase the volume of doughs and batters by promoting gas release (aeration).  Rapid assays: Diagnostic tests use emerging technology to identify and remove impurities from foods before they reach the consumer. There are two major types of rapid assays. Antibody-based assays link a "familiar" characteristic on a pathogen's surface (the antigen) to a substance known as an antibody. When this connection is made, the test registers "success." Similarly, nucleic acid-based assays use the unique genetic materials of the cells to detect a pathogen.  Rate of inactivation or survival ratio, S: Initial number of viable microorganisms (N0) divided by the number survivor microorganisms after treatment (N).  Raw Pack: Practice of filling jars with raw, unheated food. Acceptable for canning low-acid foods, but allows more rapid quality losses in acid foods heat processed in boiling water.  RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances): Nutrient intakes recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences for healthy people in the United States. Different RDAs have been established for different age groups.

Ready-Prepared Foodservice System: Foodservice system in which food is purchased from across the food processing continuum (with most coming from the little or no end), prepared, and stored either frozen or chilled for later service on site. Also known as a cook/chill or cook/freeze foodservice system.
 Ready-to-eat food: Food that is in a form that is edible without washing, cooking or additional preparation by the food establishment or consumer and that is reasonably expected to be consumed in that form. Ready-to-eat food includes potentially hazardous food that has been cooked; raw, washed, cut fruits and vegetables; whole, raw, fruits and vegetables that are presented for consumption without the need for further washing, such as at a buffet; and other food presented for consumption for which further washing or cooking is not required and from which rinds, peels, husks or shells have been removed.  Receiving Area: Space provided for the unloading of food and non-food products from commercial trucks and for checking orders for quantity, quality, and completeness.  Recombinant DNA (rDNA): DNA formed by combining segments of DNA from different organisms.  Recycled: To use again.  Refined oil: Process designed to substantially remove free fatty acids and other impurities such as phosphatides, proteinaceous and mucilagenous substances, which could contribute to undesirable flavour and appearance in the finished product.  Refractometer: Instrument that measures the refractive index of a liquid, which is used to measure soluble solids in syrups, jams and marmalades, or salt in brines.  Releasing agents: Used to prevent foodstuffs sticking to machinery, moulds, packaging etc. but not necessarily shown on food labels even though some may remain in the food.  Rennet: Enzyme used to make cheese. Rennet is extracted from the lining of calves’ stomachs. New technologies have enabled the removal of the specific gene that produces rennet and have reproduced it in bacteria. This allows the production of rennet through a fermentation process, eliminating the need for extracts from calves’ stomachs.  Requirements: Criteria set down by the competent authorities relating to trade in foodstuffs covering the protection of public health, the protection of consumers and conditions of fair trading.  Reservoir: Alternate host or passive carrier of a pathogenic microorganism. This may be soil, animals, or humans.  Residence time distribution: Distribution of times spent by the various components of a food product through a process vessel. Resonance: Electromagnetic wave patterns formed due to superposition of oncoming and reflected waves, leading to very high rates of heating. Resonance can occur inside a food for specific combinations of size, shape, and food property.  Restricted eggs: Eggs with cracks or checks in the shell, dirty eggs, incubator rejects, and inedible, leaker, or loss eggs.  Retailer: Sells goods or services to the consumer for personal use.  Retarding agent: Buffering salts. Rethermalization: Reheating to appropriate temperatures prior to service.  Retinol: Chemical name for vitamin A.  Reversible breakdown: Formation of reversible pores in the bacterial cell membranes.  Reversion: Undesirable change in flavour of a refined oil or fat. It usually refers to the development of a characteristic off flavour in a refined, bleached oil of good initial flavour.  Reynold's Number: Dimensionless expression used in predicting flow patterns.  RFP: Request for proposal is a formal document developed to make a request to potential consultants or service providers to submit a proposal to provide needed services or goods needed by an organization.  Riboflavin: One of the B vitamins. It is sometimes called vitamin B2.  Ribonucleic acid (RNA): Molecule similar to DNA that functions primarily to decode the instructions carried by genes for protein synthesis.  Ridgelimeter: Gauge to determine the sag of pectin gels.  Risk: Probability of an adverse event occurring.  Risk analysis: Process consisting of three components: risk assessment, risk management and risk communication.  Risk assessment: Scientifically based process consisting of the following steps: (i) hazard identification, (ii) hazard characterization, (iii) exposure assessment and (iv) risk characterization. It provides an evaluation of the likelihood and severity of adverse effects on public health arising, for example, from the presence in foodstuffs of additives, contaminants, residues, toxins or disease-causing organisms. Risk communication: Interactive exchange of information and opinions concerning risk among risk assessors, risk managers, consumers and other interested parties.  Risk management: Process of weighing policy alternatives in the light of the results of risk assessment and, if required, selecting and implementing appropriate control options, including regulatory measures.  Risk profile: Description of the food safety problem and its context. Risk profiling is the process of describing a food safety problem and its context, in order to identify those elements of the hazard or risk relevant to various risk management decisions. The risk profile would include identifying aspects of hazards relevant to prioritizing and setting the risk assessment policy and aspects of the risk relevant to the choice of safety standards and management options.  Rope in bread: Bacterial spoilage that produces rope-like threads in bread and can cause food poisoning.  Runaway heating: Cycle of increasing temperature in food causing increasing rate of energy (microwave/ohmic) absorption that further increases the rate of temperature rise. It is more prominent in foods undergoing phase change from ice to water and in foods containing significant salt and other ions.  Saccharin: Oldest of the non-nutritive sweeteners, is currently produced from purified, manufactured methyl anthranilate, a substance occurring naturally in grapes. It is 300 times sweeter than sucrose, heat stable and does not promote dental caries. Saccharin has a long shelf life, but a slightly bitter aftertaste. It is not metabolized in the human digestive system, is excreted rapidly in the urine and does not accumulate in body.  Salmonella: Gram-negative bacterium, occurring in many animals, especially poultry and swine. In the environment, salmonella can be found in water, soil, insects, factory and kitchen surfaces, animal fecal matter, and raw meats, poultry (including eggs) and seafood.  Sanitary: Clean and free of harmful microorganisms and other contaminants.  Sanitation: Act of reducing microbial organisms on cleaned food contact surfaces to a safe level.  Sanitize: Clean something thoroughly by disinfecting or sterilizing it.  Sanitizer: Approved substance or method to use when sanitizing.  Sanitizing: Sanitizing is probably the most important part in brewing, as anything unclean that comes in contact with unfermented beer can ruin the taste of the beer. All brewing equipment should be thoroughly cleaned beforehand with either bleach or antibacterial cleanser.  Saponification:By saponification (deesterification) of high methoxyl pectins, low methoxyl pectins are produced.  Saponins: Functional component of soybeans, soy foods and soy protein-containing food which may lower LDL cholesterol and may contain anti-cancer enzymes.  Saturated fat: Those in which all carbons contain a hydrogen, and therefore, no double bonds exist. In general, fats that contain a majority of saturated fatty acids are solid at room temperature, although some solid vegetable shortenings are up to 75 percent unsaturated. Some common fatty acids in foods include palmitic, stearic and myristic acids. Saturated fatty acids are more stable than unsaturated fatty acids because of their chemical structure. Stability is important to prevent rancidity and off flavours and odours.  Sausage, Dry: Moisture protein ratio max. range of 2.25-3.7 fermented sausage which undergoes a moisture loss of up to 25% of the total. Final water activity ranges from .85-.91. Typical pH ranges from 4.7-5.0. Many are shelf-stable due to low water activity. Ex. Pepperoni, Salami. Sausage, Fermented: Class of chopped or ground meat products that, as a result of microbial fermentation of sugar, have reached a pH of 5.3 (although 4.6-5.0 is more typical) and have undergone a drying/aging process to remove 15-35% of the moisture.  Sausage, Semi-Dry: (moisture protein ratio max. range of 1.6- 2.3 : fermented sausage which undergoes a moisture loss of up to 15% of the total. Final water activities range from 0.90-0.94. Generally smoked/cooked prior to consumption. Require refrigeration. Ex. Summer sausage, thuringer, cervelat.  Scaling: Dividing of dough into pieces of equal weight.  Scavengers: Materials that remove gases from packaging including oxygen scavengers, ethylene scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and water vapour absorbents. Scheduled Process: Detailed procedure for a single product issued by a recognized Process Authority that includes formulation, critical control points, processing steps, and storage, distribution and selling conditions/restrictions.  Semi-continuous HPP: Treatment of liquiform products using one or more chambers fitted with a free piston to allow compression, hold, and decompression with discharge under clean or sterile conditions.  Semi-sweet Chocolate: Also known as bittersweet chocolate. Contains a minimum of 35% chocolate liquor.  Sequestrants: Used to combine with trace metals in the environment to render them inactive.  Serotypes: Group of related microorganisms distinguished by its composition of antigens.  Serovar: See Serotype.  Shelf-life: Length of time between packaging and use that a food product remains of acceptable quality to the user.  Shelf-Stable: Foods considered non-perishable at room temperature for an acceptable period of time (generally weeks or months).  Shell eggs: Eggs still in their shells.  Shortening: Fats used in the baking or frying of foods. Shortenings impart or tender qualities to baked goods. Additives such as emulsifiers, antioxidants, anti foaming agents, flavouring, etc may be present, depending on the intended use of the product.  Sinusoidal wave: Mode of propagation of the magnetic field.  Sodium benzoate: Chemical preservative that is particularly effective against yeasts.  Sodium metabisulphite: Chemical preservative that is effective against moulds and yeasts. Sodium nitrite: Salt used in smoked or cured fish and in meat-curing preparation. It acts as a preservative and colour fixative. Can combine with chemicals in the stomach to form nitrosamine, a carcinogenic substance.  Soils: Material that contaminates equipment (ea. grease, scale, burned on food or other food residues).  Solids content: Soluble and insoluble solid matter of a substance (see also °Brix).  Soluble fiber: Type of dietary fiber found in psyllium, cereals, oatmeal, apples, citrus fruits, beans and other foods which increases the viscosity in the gut and acts to reduce high blood cholesterol levels which decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease.  Sorbitol: Sugar alcohol, suitable for diabetics.  SOS: In X-rays technology, solid state opening switch that can deliver pulses in the gigawatt range.  Sous vide: Process in which food is prepared, vacuum packed, cooked to pasteurise (sterilise) the food and chilled. These foods can be refrigerated for up to sixty days.  Soy protein: Found in soybeans and soy-based foods which when consumed at the level of 25 grams per day may reduce the risk of heart disease.  Sparge: Rinsing grains to extract residual sugar that clings to the grains after they have been mashed. Warm water is poured over the grains and hops above a strainer. Specific gravity: Measure of the density of a liquid relative to the amount of fermentable sugars it contains. By testing a beer's specific gravity it is possible to determine when the beer is done fermenting and to know in advance how strong the beer will be.

Specific heat: Ability of a material to store heat. Described technically as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of unit mass of an object by a unit increment in temperature.
 Specification Sheets: Written materials prepared by manufacturers to describe their equipment and document important engineering information.  Specification: Concise statement of a set of requirements to be satisfied by a product, material, or process.  Specific-purpose foods: Foods produced for a specific purpose such as, to supply military personnel, for space explorations, to supply food for areas of temperature extremes or to supply high-protein biscuits for famine areas, and more recently, foods developed for a more specific health purpose in the general population.  Spice bag: Closeable fabric bag used to extract spice flavours in pickling solution.  Spoilage: Significant food deterioration, usually caused by bacteria and enzymes, that produces a noticeable change in the taste, odour, or appearance of the product.  Spore: Inactive or dormant state of some rod-shaped bacteria. It is the part of mould that reproduces and causes the mould to spread. It is the mould's version of a seed.  Stabilisers: Substances which allow food compounds which do not mix well to be mixed and stay in a homogeneous state.  Stability: Relative resistance of a product to an undesirable breakdown or change. For fats and oils, stability may refer to resistance to oxidation, hydrolysis, flavour reversion and formation of off odours and flavours.  Standard Operating Procedures (SOP): Written procedures that will be followed in operating a foodservice system.  Standardization: Grouping of unlike items into uniform lots on the basis of qualitative criteria, such as a food grade.  Stanol/sterol esters: Functional component found in wood oils, corn, soy and wheat which may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by lowering blood cholesterol levels.  Starch: Polysaccharide consisting of long chains of glucose units. Found very widely in plants, commonly as a form of energy storage in roots, tubers, fruits and seeds. In this respect it performs essentially the same functions as sugar, but is not sweet and not very soluble in water. Static chamber: Chamber that processes a given volume of food at a time.  Static magnetic field: Magnetic fields that have constant intensity over time and whose field direction is constant. The intensity varies periodically according to the frequency and type of wave in the magnet.  Stearate: Saturated fatty acid containing eighteen carbon atoms in its molecular “backbone” that is essentially neutral in effect on coronary heart disease in humans (i.e., doesn’t appreciably increase low-density lipoproteins in the bloodstream). Because of the heart disease neutrality and resistance to oxidation/breakdown, stearate-containing oils are an excellent cooking oil choice.  Sterilant: Chemical that destroys micro-organisms but does not remove soils.  Sterile: Absence of all living micro-organisms.  Sterilisation: Process in which foods are treated to kill all forms of micro-organisms and spores. Foods can be sterilised with high temperature treatment or with ionising radiation.  Sterilise: Kill all living micr-oorganisms in order to make something incapable of causing infection. Stoke's equation: Velocity at which a sphere will rise or fall in a liquid varies as the square of its diameter; for example, a fat globule with a diameter of 2 microns will rise 4 times faster than a fat globule with a diameter of 1 micron.

Storage area: Area where consumable food (dry, frozen, and refrigerated) and non- consumable products are stored in case lots, bulk packages, and broken case lots on shelving pallets or dunnage racks. Also includes storage of toxic chemicals, cleaning supplies, and paper goods.

Strong flour: Wheat flour that has a high level of gluten.

Style of pack: Form of canned food, such as whole, sliced, piece, juice, or sauce. The term may also be used to reveal whether food is filled raw or hot into jars.

Sublimation: Change, when heated, from a solid state to a vapour without going through the liquid state.

Sucralose: Only low-calorie sweetener that is made from sugar. It is approximately 600-times sweeter and does not contain calories. Sucralose is highly stable under a wide variety of processing conditions. Thus, it can be used virtually anywhere sugar can, including cooking and baking, without losing any of its sugar-like sweetness.

Sucrose: Technical name for table sugar. Sucrose is the first storage molecule produced in all green plants. Sucrose is a diglyceride composed of glucose and fructose.

Sugar: Although the consumer is confronted by a wide variety of sugars—sucrose, raw sugar, turbinado sugar, brown sugar, honey, corn syrup—there is no significant difference in the nutritional content or energy each provides, and therefore no advantage of one nutritionally over another. There also is no evidence that the body can distinguish between naturally occurring or added sugars in food products.

Sugar alcohols: Ingredients used to add sweet flavours to food. Those often used instead of sugars include sorbitol, mamitol, and xylitol. Many fruits and vegetables contain sugar alcohols naturally. They’re also found in some sugarless gum, hard candies, jams and jellies. Besides adding sweetness, sugar alcohols also add texture, help foods stay moist, prevent browning when food is heated and give a cooling effect to the taste of food. They supply four calories per gram, but are absorbed slowly and incompletely and thus require little or no insulin for metabolism. They are not cavity-producing because they are not metabolized by bacteria that produce cavities.

Sugar bloom: Visible as a dull white film on the surface of the chocolate. Dry and hard to the touch, sugar bloom is the result of surface moisture dissolving sugar in the chocolate and subsequent recrystallization of the sugar on the chocolate surface. Typically caused by cold chocolate being exposed to a warm humid environment with resultant condensation forming on the product. A visual and textural defect only. The product is fine to eat.

Sugar penetration: Sugar exchange between substances of varying sugar content (e.g. fruits and surrounding sugar solution).

Sulfites: Used to preserve the colour of foods such as dried fruits and vegetable, and to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in fermented foods such as wine. Sulfites are safe for most people. A small segment of the population, however, has been found to develop shortness of breath or fatal shock shortly after exposure to these preservatives. Sulfites can provoke severe asthma attacks in sulfite-sensitive asthmatics.

Sulphoraphane: Functional component of cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, kale, horseradish) which provides the health benefits of neutralizing free radicals and possibly reducing the risk of cancer.

Surrogate microbe: Non-pathogenic species and strain responding to a particular treatment in a manner equivalent to a pathogenic species and strain. The surrogate allows biological verification of the treatment without introducing pathogens into a food processing area. For example, PA 3679 is used as a surrogate microbe for Clostridium botulinum in thermal process validation. Listeria innocua Is a possible surrogate for L. monocytogenes.

Susceptors: Strips of material, usually metallised polyester film/paper laminate, attached inside a microwave package to concentrate heating over the foods that need to be browned. A de-metallising process applied to the laminate is able to remove different amounts of the metal to ensure even cooking for different components or for different areas of a product.

Sweet chocolate (Dark): Chocolate that contains a minimum of 15% chocolate liquor with varying amounts of sweeteners and cocoa butter.

Synergistic effect: Effect achieved by the combination of two or more substances or organisms which neither alone could accomplish.

Syneresis: Bleeding of gels due to mechanical damage or too firm gellification (shrinking).

Syrup: Thick sticky viscous liquid made by dissolving sugar in boiling water.

Tamper evidence: Devices attached to food packages that indicate if a package has been opened or not.

Temperature danger zone: Temperatures between 5° and 60°C (41° and 140°F) at which bacteria grow best.  Tempering: Process of preparing chocolate that involves cooling and heating so that it will solidify with a stable cocoa butter crystal form; to bring chocolate to a state in which it has snap, shine and no streaks. This process is used to prepare chocolate for coating and dipping. Proper tempering, followed by good cooling, is required for good surface gloss and to prevent "fat" bloom. Chocolate must be tempered because it contains cocoa butter, a fat that forms crystals after chocolate is melted and cooled.

Tenderloin: Most tender part of a loin of beef, located on either side of a cows backbone.

Tesla: Unit to express magnetic flux density. 1 Telsa (T) = 104 gauss.

Thermophile: Microorganisms that grow best at temperatures above 110° F (43° C).

Thermophysical properties: Properties that influence the heating rate of a material. Examples of thermophysical properties are thermal conductivity (the ability of the material to conduct heat), specific heat (the ability of the material to store heat), and density (the mass per unit volume of the material).

Thiamin: One of the B vitamins. It is sometimes called vitamin B1.

Thickeners: Used to increase viscosity, modify texture and impart stability.

Thief sampler: Equipment to take samples from sacks of food.

Titratable acidity: Measure of titratable hydrogen ions. Includes H+ ions free in solution and those associated with acids and proteins.

Titration: Method of accurately adding one liquid to another, commonly used in food analysis.

Total Quality Management (TQM): Method of organizing a company with specific procedures, policies, and practices that commit it to continuous quality improvement in all its activities.

Toxin: Poison produced by a living microorganism.

Traceability: Ability to trace the history, application, or location of an entity by means of recorded identifications.

Trans fats: Occur naturally in beef, butter, milk and lamb fats and in commercially prepared, partially hydrogenated margarines and solid cooking fats. The main sources of trans fats are margarine, shortening, commercial frying fats and high-fat baked goods. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils were developed in part to help displace highly saturated animal and vegetable fats used in frying, baking and spreads. However, trans fats, like saturated fats, may raise blood LDL cholesterol levels (the so-called "bad" cholesterol) - but not as much as the saturates do. At high consumption, levels may also reduce the HDL or "good" cholesterol levels.

Transgenic: Transfer of genetic material from one organism to another between species.

Treacle: Syrup containing cane molasses, which darkens it and gives it a special flavour.

Treatment time: Time that a food product is subjected to a process. For instance in PEF, it is calculated as the product of the number of pulses times the duration of the pulses.

Tryptophan: One of the amino acids that makes up proteins. Tryptophan is of special importance in nutrition because it can be converted into the B vitamin niacin.

Turnover: Rate at which fat is used up during a frying operation. Rapid turnover is desirable so that an amount of fresh fat equivalent to the original fat load will have been added to maintain the fat level and replace the absorbed fat in a relatively short time.

UHT: Ultra high temperature.

Ultrasonic: Term used to describe a vibrating wave of a frequency above that of the upper frequency limit of the human ear; it generally embraces all frequencies above 16 kilocycles/second.

Umami: In addition to the four main taste components (sweet, sour, salty and bitter), there is the additional taste characteristic called "umami" or savory. One of the food components responsible for the umami flavour in foods is glutamate, an amino acid.

Unique Radiolytic Products (URPs): Chemicals produced in food when the food is irradiated that are different from chemicals produced during cooking.

Unsweetened chocolate: Same as "chocolate liquor". The chocolate liquor is cooled and molded into blocks that can be used for baking.

US-SAG: Internationally recognized measure for the gel strength of high methoxyl pectins. The sagging of a standard gel under defined conditions is measured.

Vacuum packaged: Food is placed in an air-tight package and all the air removed prior to sealing to prevent growth of microorganisms.

Vacuum: Place or region containing no solid, liquid or gas. The state of negative pressure. Reflects how thoroughly air is removed from within a jar or can of processed food - the higher the vacuum, the less air left in the jar.

Value-added: Processing of products so that their selling price is higher than that of the raw materials from which they were made.

Vanillin: Artificial vanilla flavouring frequently used as an ingredient in chocolate.

Variable frequency: Sweeping over a range of frequencies during the microwave heating process to improve uniformity.

Vegan: Person who eats no foods of animal origin. Vegans need to take supplements of vitamin B12 because they do not get this vitamin from their diets. Vegans may also have difficulty meeting their need for vitamin D.

Vegetable fat or oil: Naturally occurring or refined and processed fat from any vegetable or plant source. It may be edible or inedible according to source or type of processing.

Vegetative cell: In contrast to the dormant spore, which has no metabolic activity until activated when food is cooked, the vegetative cell is in an active metabolic state in which the bacteria are growing and multiplying at a rate depending on the food temperature, acidity, water, additives, etc.

Vegetative state: Active state of a bacterium where the cell takes in nourishment, grows, and produces wastes.

Verification: Confirmation by examination and provision of objective evidence that specified requirements have been fulfilled.

Vermin: Insect or small animal that is destructive, annoying, or harmful to health. Includes cockroaches, flies, and rats.

Virgin oil: Olive oil of a high quality and acidity not exceeding 2%.

Virulence: Pathogenic or poisonous potential of bacteria, fungi, or other agents.

Virus: Infectious microorganisms that reproduce only in living cells. They cause diseases such as mumps and Hepatitis A and can be transmitted through food.

Viscosity: Measure for the flow properties of a substance (expressed in mPa.s)
Vitamins: Name that is given to 13 organic substances which are essential in the diet because they cannot be manufactured by the body. Vitamins are needed in very small amounts, but they are essential to life.

Volumetric heating: Heating by internal energy generation throughout the volume of a material (see also internal energy generation).

Water absorption: Measurements that indicate how much water can be held in a dough.

Water activity: aw. Qualitatively, aw is a measure of unbound, free water in a system, available to support biological and chemical reactions. Water activity affects microorganisms survival and reproduction, enzymes, and chemical reactions. The water activity of a substance is quantitatively equal to the vapor pressure of the substance divided by the vapor pressure of pure water (both measured at the same temperature). Measurements range from 0.00 (dry) to 1.00 (pure water).

Water phase salt: Measure of percent salt based on an analysis of the water phase of the tissue of a product, as opposed to the percent salt based on an analysis of the surface of a product. Used primarily in the fish industry.

Water-soluble vitamins: Nutrients that dissolve in water. These include vitamin C and the B vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins can easily be lost in cooking if they are allowed to leach into the cooking water, which is then discarded. This problem can be avoided by serving foods raw, cooking foods in as little water as possible, or including the cooking water in the finished dish (e.g., in a soup or stew).

Waveform/Waveshape: Type of electric or pressure pulses generated by the high voltage pulser.

Waveguide: Physical component of a microwave system that guides the microwaves from magnetron to the cavity where the food is heated. When applied in the form of pulses, it reverses the charge for each pulse and pulse intensity gradually decreases.

White chocolate: To be legally called 'chocolate' a product must contain cocoa solids. White chocolate does not contain these solids, which leaves it a smooth ivory or beige colour. Real white chocolate is primarily cocoa butter, sugar, milk and vanilla.

Whole egg: Consist of yolk (yellow portion) and albumen (white or clear portion). For the various types of egg products - liquid, frozen, and dried - the yolks and albumen are separated during the breaking.

Whole grain: The whole kernel of grain which includes the bran (outer shell), germ (nutrient rich core) and endosperm (starchy portion). The health benefit provided by whole grains is the reduced risk of cardiovascular disease which results from the combination of fiber, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals found in whole grains.

Workstation: Area and equipment used to do similar work (i.e. vegetable preparation) or a specific set of tasks (i.e. assembly of sandwiches).

Wort (Pronounced wert): Sweet, concentrated sugar solution produced by boiling hops and malt. Basically, unfermented beer.

Yeast: Single cell organism which as it grows converts its food through a process known as fermentation into alcohol and carbon dioxide. To multiply and grow, yeast needs moisture, food in the forms of sugar or starch and a warm temperature (70°-80°F is best). Yeast has not been known to cause illness when present in foods but can cause damage to food products and will change taste. It is useful in making products such as bread, wine and beer.

z(T) [z(P) or z(E)]: Thermal (pressure or electric field) resistance constant (z) is the temperature (°C) (pressure or electric field) increase needed to accomplish a one-log cycle reduction in the D-value.

Zeaxanthin: Type of carotenoid found in eggs, citrus fruits and corn which positively contributes to the maintenance of eye vision.

Zymurgy: Science of brewing beer. Also the last word in the dictionary. 
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